Develop a range of instructional and assessment methods and test preparation methods. Instruction Linda Gojakformer NCTM President, noted that "Over the last three decades a variety of instructional strategies have been introduced with a goal of increasing student achievement in mathematics. Such strategies include individualized instruction, cooperative learning, direct instruction, inquiry, scaffolding, computer-assisted instruction, and problem solving" with the flipped classroom being a recent addition to the list para. Blended learning is also on the rise, which adds online learning to traditional classrooms.
What can it look like? Informal cooperative learning groups In informal cooperative learning, small, temporary, ad-hoc groups of two to four students work together for brief periods in a class, typically up to one class period, to answer questions or respond to prompts posed by the instructor.
This video shows an example of informal cooperative learning in a large class taught by Tessa Andrews at the University of Georgia: Additional examples of ways to structure informal group work are given in the table below.
Formal cooperative learning groups In formal cooperative learning students work together for one or more class periods to complete a joint task or assignment Johnson et al. There are several features that can help these groups work well: The instructor defines the learning objectives for the activity and assigns students to groups.
The groups are typically heterogeneous, with particular attention to the skills that are needed for success in the task. Within the groups, students may be assigned specific roles, with the instructor communicating the criteria for success and the types of social skills that will be needed.
Instructors also encourage groups to reflect on their interactions to identify potential improvements for future group work. There are many more specific types of group work that fall under the general descriptions given here, including team-based learningproblem-based learningand process-oriented guided inquiry learning.
The use of cooperative learning groups in instruction is based on the principle of constructivism, with particular attention to the contribution that social interaction can make.
In essence, constructivism rests on the idea that individuals learn through building their own knowledge, connecting new ideas and experiences to existing knowledge and experiences to form new or enhanced understanding Bransford, et al.
Lev Vygotsky extended this work by examining the relationship between cognitive processes and social activities, developing the sociocultural theory of development. The sociocultural theory of development suggests that learning takes place when students solve problems beyond their current developmental level with the support of their instructor or their peers.
Thus both the idea of a zone of proximal development, supported by positive group interdependence, is the basis of cooperative learning Davidson and Major, ; Johnson, et al. Cooperative learning follows this idea as groups work together to learn or solve a problem, with each individual responsible for understanding all aspects.
The small groups are essential to this process because students are able to both be heard and to hear their peers, while in a traditional classroom setting students may spend more time listening to what the instructor says.
Cooperative learning uses both goal interdependence and resource interdependence to ensure interaction and communication among group members.
Changing the role of the instructor from lecturing to facilitating the groups helps foster this social environment for students to learn through interaction. Is there evidence that it works?
David Johnson, Roger Johnson, and Karl Smith performed a meta-analysis of studies comparing cooperative learning to competitive learning and individualistic learning in college students Johnson et al.
They found that cooperative learning produced greater academic achievement than both competitive learning and individualistic learning across the studies, exhibiting a mean weighted effect size of 0.
One way to incorporate both cooperative learning and technology integration into the classroom setting is through the use of Web technologies, such as wikis, blogs, and podcasts. “Web technologies introduce a new dimension to education, which becomes not just learner centered but learner centered as learners are the joint generators. What are the Dimensions of Learning? Dimensions of Learning (Marzano & Pickering, ) is an instructional framework based on five types of thinking, called the dimensions of learning, that are considered essential to student learning and academic performance. Positive attitudes and perceptions about learning. Acquiring and integrating knowledge. Second, technology integration in foreign language teaching demonstrates the shift in educational paradigms froma behavioral to a constructivist learning approach. Language is a living thing, so the best way to learn a language isin interactive, authentic environments.
In essence, these results indicate that cooperative learning increases student academic performance by approximately one-half of a standard deviation when compared to non-cooperative learning models, an effect that is considered moderate.
Importantly, the academic achievement measures were defined in each study, and ranged from lower-level cognitive tasks e. The meta-analysis also showed substantial effects on other metrics, including self-esteem and positive attitudes about learning.
George Kuh and colleagues also conclude that cooperative group learning promotes student engagement and academic performance Kuh et al. Springer, Stanne, and Donovan confirmed these results in their meta-analysis of 39 studies in university STEM classrooms.
They found that students who participated in various types of small-group learning, ranging from extended formal interactions to brief informal interactions, had greater academic achievement, exhibited more favorable attitudes towards learning, and had increased persistence through STEM courses than students who did not participate in STEM small-group learning.
The box below summarizes three individual studies examining the effects of cooperative learning groups.Oct 19, · Cooperative learning assignments, as discussed in the essay "Making cooperative learning work," from Kaleidoscope: Readings in Education, have many benefits to them that may seem to outweigh the potential pitfalls of the constructions of such learning environments.
Integrating Technology In The Teaching And Learning Process Education Essay. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, Viewing technology integration from a wide perspective will provide teachers with the necessary foundation to implement technology into the classroom more successfully".
Cooperative Learning and Technology Integration Essay - In today’s classroom the emphasis is no longer on teacher-directed instructed; it is on student-centered learning.
Another important aspect of the classroom is the integration of technology to enhance student learning.
Cooperative Learning Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.
Elsewhere, authors of this paper have considered the integration of cooperative learning with TC (Lee, Ng, & Jacobs, ) and with IT (Jacobs, Ward, & Gallo, ). Below, we briefly review key elements of cooperative learning and then describe some of its links with thinking and creativity and information technology.
Abstract. The goal of the paper is to synthesis my learning about how technology integrated into the classroom is beneficial to student learning, followed by an examination of benefits and detriments that are derived from effective integration of technology.